Effect of AC/DC electrical fields on ZnO nanoparticles kinetics
Keywords:effect of AC/DC electrical fields, zinc-oxide nanoparticles, zinc migration, sand medium
Long-term electrokinetic processes affect the motion of different soil fractions mainly ionic-species in soil-type environments. Primarily, this governs direct (DC) and alternating (AC) electrical fields due to the different thermal, acid-base ion gradients generated close to electrodes resulted in electro-migration, electrophoresis, and other electrolysis-related-processes. The migration of metal ionic-species, including zinc, which occurs mainly under DC electrical field is generally acknowledged, but metal-corresponding nanoforms such as ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) under low-level DC and AC electrical fields absent in the literature. The aims of the research was the analysis of pressure-driven transport at two different electric potentials; the equipotential-voltage lines in sand-media with ZnO-NP under 1 V, and 3 V (for DC), and AC under 1 V, 3 V (1 kHz of sinusoidal waves), detection of the migration of Zn from ZnO-NP to anode-to-cathode area (DC), and to the electrodes areas for AC with pH changes within three-hours of treatment and X-ray diffraction investigation of structural changes of ZnO-NP. The results showed that the AC electric field had more uniform equipotential-voltage pattern of sand-media than the DC fields for both voltages applied. In addition, different zinc concentrations up to 11% and electro-active substances were detected between the DC anode-to-cathode and Electrode 1 area compared to the AC Electrode 2 area. The higher pH value also correlated only with DC. X-ray diffraction analysis detected no structure transformation of ZnO-NP, but deterioration of relatively stable graphite electrodes appeared. Our results at the low-level AC and DC electrical fields confirmed the potential of electro-accelerated nanoparticle kinetics.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Marek Kolencik, Martin Urík, Michal Lesňák, Karla Čech Barabaszová, Marek Bujdoš, Martin Šebesta, Edmud Dobročka, Elena Aydın Aydin, Eva Duborská, Dávid Ernst, Martin Juriga, Jada Chakvavarthi, Yu Qian, Huan Feng, Gabriela Kratošová, B. Ratna Sunil, Ramakanth Illa
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