In vivo histopathologic and histomorphometric evaluation of the antidiabetic potential of Syzygium cumini and Ficus racemosa herb
Keywords:Syzygium cumini, Ficus racemosa, antidiabetic, histomorphometry, pancreas
Seeds of Syzygium cumini and fruits of Ficus racemosa individually are reputed to have hypoglycemic properties, but their combined efficacy is yet to reveal which may produce improved therapeutic efficacy than the single herb treatment. Hence, the antidiabetic potency of a combined extract of S. cumini seeds and F. racemosa fruits was investigated using glibenclamide as a reference drug in terms of physiologic, hematologic, histopathologic, and histomorphometric restoration. For a 30-day experiment, seventy-two Swiss albino mice were grouped as normal control, diabetic control (alloxan @ 150 mg/kg b.wt), glibenclamide (@ 600 μg/kg b.wt) and combined herbal extract (ethanolic extracts of S. cumini seeds @ 500 mg/kg b.wt and F. racemosa fruits @ 200 mg/kg b.wt). Diabetic control mice presented hyperglycemia and significantly lower body and pancreas weights. When the combined herbal extract was administered, the diabetic animals body and organ weights increased and glycemic levels fell; the exhibited hypoglycemic effect was better than the reported individual treatment and statistically similar (p < 0.05) to the reference drug. Postprandial hypoglycemia found in the glucose tolerance test also indicates improved glucose usage ability of the combined extract by the cells and tissues. Diabetes-induced changes in the pancreas such as fibrosis, vascular congestion, decreased number and diameter of the islets were restored to near-normal after administration of combined herbal extract and glibenclamide. Collectively, the combined herbal extract derived from S. cumini seeds and F. racemosa fruits was better than their individual dose and was nearly as effective as a standard hypoglycemic drug.
Adeyi, A.O. et al. (2012). Effects of aqueous leave extract of Ficus exasperata on pathophysiology and histopathogy of alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(46), 5730-5736. 10.5897/JMPR10.163
Ahmed, F., & Urooj, A. (2010). Traditional uses, medicinal properties, and phytopharmacology of Ficus racemosa: A review. Pharmaceutical Biology, 48(6), 672-681. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880200903241861
Amin, M.M. et al. (2021). Syzygium cumini departs the negatives of the alloxan induced diabetes in Swiss albino mice. International Journal of Research in AYUSH and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(6), 553-556. https://doi.org/10.47070/ijraps.v5i6.116
Boukhalfa, F. et al. (2018). Antioxidant activity and hypolipidemic effect of Ficus carica leaf and twig extracts in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 11, 37-50. https://doi.org/10.3233/MNM-17180
Chakravarthy, B.K. et al. (1982). Functional β-cell regeneration in the islets of pancreas in alloxan induced diabetic rats by (-)- epicatechin. Life Sciences, 31(24), 2693-2697. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(82)90713-5
Eliakim-Ikechukwu, C.F., & Obri, A.I. (2009). Histological changes in the pancreas following administration of ethanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaf in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 24(2), 153-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njps.v24i2.52927
Hasan, N. et al. (2016). Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Ficus recemosa fruit extracts using different solvents. British Journal of Medical and Health Research, 3(11), 70-85.
Heroor, S. et al. (2013). Synergistic activity of bark extracts of Pongamia glabra and Ficus glomerata in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(6), 6640-6652.
Irfan, Y. et al. (2011). Effect of unripe fruit extract of Ficus glomerata (Roxb) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmacologyonline, 2, 1-13.
Kumar, A. et al. (2008). Anti-diabetic activity of Syzygium cumini and its isolated compound against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2(9), 246-249.
Kumar, M. et al. (2022). Jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels) seed: a review on nutritional profile, functional food properties, health-promoting applications, and safety aspects. Processes, 10(2169), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112169
Kumar, V., Cotran, R., & Robbins, S.L. (1992). Basic Pathology. 5. ed. W B Saunders.
Lenzen, S. (2008). The mechanisms of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetologia, 51, 216-226. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-007-0886-7
Masaenah, E. et al. (2021). Antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of combined extract of Andrographis paniculata, Syzygium cumini, and Caesalpinia sappan. Heliyon, 7(12), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08561
Moller, D.E. (2001). New drug targets for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Nature, 414, 821-827. https://doi.org/10.1038/414821a
Nahar, L. et al. (2010). Comparative study of antidiabetic effect of Abroma augusta and Syzygium cumini on alloxan induced diabetic rat. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(6), 1268-1272. https://doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.6.1268.1272
Narender, T. et al. (2009). Synthesis of α-amyrin derivatives and their in vivo antihyperglycemic activity. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 44, 1215-1222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2008.09.011
Noor, A. et al. (2017). Improvement of insulin secretion and pancreatic β‑cell function in streptozotocin‑induced diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera extract. Pharmacognosy Research, 9(5), 99-104. https://doi.org/10.4103/pr.pr_75_17
Piedrola, G. et al. (2001). White blood cell count and insulin resistance in patients with coronary artery disease. Annales d'Endocrinologie, 62(1), 7-10.
Rather, G.J. et al. (2019). Antidiabetic potential and related activity of Jamun (Syzygium cumini Linn.) and its utilization in Unani medicine: An overview. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 7(5), 07-11.
Rekha, N. (2010). Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium cumini on gestational diabetic rats. PhD Thesis, Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute University, Chennai, India. http://hdl.handle.net/10603/120211
Rizvi, S.I., & Mishra, N. (2013). Traditional Indian medicines used for the management of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2013(712092), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/712092
Schossler, D.R.C. et al. (2004). Syzygium cumini and the regeneration of insulin positive cells from the pancreatic duct. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 41(4), 236-239.
Singh, N., & Gupta, M. (2007). Effects of ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (Linn) seed powder on pancreatic islets of alloxan diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 45, 861-867.
Singh, R. et al. (2013). Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of fruit of Ficus racemosa Linn. (M). Journal of Acute Disease, 2013, 207-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-6189(13)60128-6
Sophia, D., & Manoharan, S. (2007). Hypolipidemic activities of Ficus racemosa Linn. bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 4(3), 279-288. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v4i3.31220
Swami, S.B. et al. (2012). Jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.)): a review of its food and medicinal uses. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3, 1100-1117. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2012.38146
Szablewski, L. (2017). Gluconeogenesis. UK: IntechOpen Limited. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/67222
Talukder, A., & Hossain, M.Z. (2020). Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its associated factors in Bangladesh: application of two-level logistic regression model. Scientific Reports, 10(10237), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66084-9
Zulfiker, A.H.M. et al. (2011). Hypoglycemic and in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn. fruits. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2(3), 391-400. https://doi.org/10.5251/ajsir.2011.2.3.391.400
Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Mahmudul Amin, Tanjina Amin, Ziaul Haque, Shonkor Kumar Das
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.