Nutrition, rumination and heat stress as influential factors in dairy cows production: A review
Keywords:dairy cows, nutrition, rumination, heat stress, milk yield
The aim of this review is to consolidate the already much published knowledge concerning the gastrointestinal tract of the dairy cow in relation to nutrition. This review document deals with the essential living conditions of dairy cows, with an attention to nutrition, and highlights the importance of correct ration design. Dairy cows in different production cycles have special requirements for the composition, structure and nutrient composition of their rations. This review document provides more detailed information on the physical structure of feedstuffs as well as the need for individual nutrients for the right functioning of the dairy cow. These elements determine total health, feed intake, rumination, the development of metabolic diseases and last but not least, milk yield and composition. Rumination is an important and valuable tool that indicates the correctness of these aspects. Many published studies point to the relationship between rumination and health status where early intervention can be made to prevent a reduction in milk yield and consequent negative selection from the breeding stock. Many studies describe rumination as an indicator that forms the basis of the herd on which the very substantial and developing benefits of breeding as well as reproduction itself are built. The rumination-based relationships of heat stress and dairy cow health are also nowadays receiving a great deal of attention in studies. In nowadays also receiving a great deal of attention in studies about relationship not only between rumination - heat stress but also dairy cow health status. Heat stress is characteristically labelled as an unwanted factor that has an adverse effect on dairy cow milk yield.
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