• Tomáš Mitrík +421 903 477 473
  • Andrej Mitrík
  • Dušan Kořínek


Zea mays, hybrids, harvesting technology, vegetation stages, dry matter content, silage, 1,2-propanediol, Lentilactobacillus buchneri


1,2-propanediol (propanediol) represents an important glucoplastic substance for the nutritional requirements of highly productive cows, and its natural synthesis during silage fermentation is of great importance. The aim of this paper was to monitor the fermentation activity of two combinations of homo- and hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in two preparations (preparation 1: L. buchneri, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum; preparation 2: L. buchneri, L. rhamnosus, L. diolivorans). Propanediol production was monitored in maize silages at the following levels: cutting technology, hybrid, vegetation development, type of silage fermentation and length of fermentation time. From the point of view of silage alternatives, preparation 1 fulfilled the declared properties and had a demonstrably positive influence on the production of propanediol in maize silages from whole plants (average content of 4.93 g.kg-1). Propanediol production in the silage alternative with preparation 2 (average content of 1.33 g.kg-1) was higher when compared to the negative control (average content of 0.11 g.kg-1). The production of propanediol decreased with increasing dry matter content, which is directly related to the advancing vegetative development of plants. The type of silage fermentation and vegetation development had a statistically demonstrable effect on the level of propanediol production in maize silages. A statistically significant difference at the hybrid level was only identified with one hybrid. No statistically significant differences were found at the level of cutting technology and length of fermentation time. The fermentation activity of the Lactobacillus buchneri strain used depended on its combination with other homofermentative and/or heterofermentative LAB strains.


Arriola, K.G., Oliveira A.S., Jiang Y., Kim D., Silva H.M., Kim S.C., Amaro F.X., Ogunade I.M., Sultana H., Pech Cervantes A.A., Ferraretto L.F., Vyas D., Adesogan A.T. (2021). Meta-analysis of effects of inoculation with Lactobacillus buchneri, with or without other bacteria, on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 104:7653–7670. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19647

Danner H., Holzer M., Weidenholzer E., Braun R. (2003): Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions; Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69(1):562-7

Huang, Z.;Wang, M., Ke, W., Guo, X (2021). Screening of High 1,2-Propanediol Production by Lactobacillus buchneri Strains and Their Effects on Fermentation Characteristics and Aerobic Stability of Whole-Plant Corn Silage. Agriculture 2021, 11, 590. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11070590

Kacerovský O., Babička L., Bíro D., Heger J., Jedlička Z., Lohniský J., Mudřík Z., Roubal P., Svobodová M., Vencl P., Vrátny P., Zelenka J. (1990). Zkoušení a posuzování krmiv. Státni zemědelské nakladatelství Praha, 1990. ISBN 80-209-0098-5

Kalúzová, M., Kačániová, M., Bíro, D., Šimko, M., Gálik, B., Rolinec, M., Hanušovský, O., Felšöciová, S., Juráček, M. (2022) The Change in Microbial Diversity and Mycotoxins Concentration in Corn Silage after Addition of Silage Additives. Diversity 2022, 14, 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14080592

Kleinschmit D. H., Kung L. Jr. (2006): The Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and Pediococcus pentosaceus R1094 on the fermentation of Corn Silage; J. Dairy Sci. 89:3999–4004

Krooneman, J., Faber, F., Alderkamp, A.C., Qude Elferink, S.J.H.W., Driehuis, F. and Cleenwerck, I. (2002). Lactobacillus diolivorans sp. nov. a 1.2–propanediol–degrading bacterium isolated from aerobically stable maize silage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2002; 52, 639–46.

Lau, N., Kramer, E., Hummel, J. (2018). Impact of grass silage with high levels of propylene glycol on ketosis prophylaxis during transition phase and early lactation. In Proceedings of the 18th International Silage Conference, Bonn, Germany, 24–26 July 2018; pp. 308–309.

Mitrík T., Kořínek D., Mitrík A. (2019). Heterofermentative LAB and 1,2-propanediol production in maize silages with lower dry matter content; 18th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM FORAGE CONSERVATION, Brno, 2019

Mitrík T. (2021). Ensilage – illustrated manual for expert a begginer alike. Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-911-4

Nishino N. a Touno E. (2005). Ensiling characteristics and aerobic stability of direct-cut and wilted grass silages inoculated with Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri. J Sci Food Agric 85:1882–1888 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2189

Oude Elferink S. J. W. H., Krooneman J., Gottschal J.C., Spoelestra S. F., Faber F., Driehuis F. (2001). Anaerobic Conversion of Lactic Acid to Acetic Acid and 1,2-Propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri; APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Jan. 2001, p. 125-132

Patent EP2822399A1: Food and beverage products containing 1,3-propanediol and methods of modifying flavor release using 1,3-propanediol, https://patents.google.com/patent/EP2822399A1/en

Rooke, J.A. and Hatfield, R.D., 2003. Biochemistry of ensiling. In: Buxton, D.R., Muck, R.E. and Harrison, J.H. (eds.) Silage science and technology. Vol. 42. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA.

da Silva, E. B., Liu X., Mellinger C., Gressley T.F., Stypinski J.D., Moyer N. A. and Kung Jr. L. (2022). Effect of dry matter content on the microbial community and on the effectiveness of a microbial inoculant to improve the aerobic stability of corn silage; J. Dairy Sci. 105:5024–5043; https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-21515

Weiss K., Kroschlewski B., Auerbach H. (2005). Effects of air exposure, temperature and additives on fermentation characteristics, yeast count, aerobic stability and volatile organic compounds in corn silage; J. Dairy Sci. 99:8053–8069

Wilkinson, J.M., Rinne, M. (2017). Highlights of progress in silage conservation and future perspectives. Grass Forage Sci. 2017;00:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/ gfs.12327






Animal Science