Evaluation of Turkish Maize Landraces Through Observing Their Yield and Agro-Morphological Traits for Genetic Improvement of New Maize Cultivars

Ferhat Kizilgeci, Mehmet Yildirim, Onder Albayrak, Behiye Tuba Bicer, Akbar Hossain, Ayman EL Sabagh, Cuma Akinci


Received: 2018-03-24 | Accepted: 2018-06-05 | Available online: 2018-06-30


For protection of diverse genetic resources of local landraces and to get the benefit for next generation, research works should be continuing through screening of local landraces by using with local germplasm; which will be very useful to conserve the genetic variability and will provide to economic profits to the farmers by improving their uses. In the context, One hundred twenty-five maize landraces with two commercial maize hybrids (‘Kalumet’ and ‘Katone’) were evaluated for yield and agro-morphological performance for genetic improvement of future maize varieties. The landraces were collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey and were evaluated under the augmented complete design under Diyarbakir agro-ecological conditions during 2015. After observation, it was observed that all genotypes showed a significant variations for all traits especially for yield and yield attributes. Considering the overall performance of all landraces, the days to tasseling and silking were varied from 39.5 to 64.5 and from 49.5 to 70.5 days; while the SPAD meter were varied from 37.8 to 70 unit, the plant height from 165 to 315.5 cm, the ear height from 55.8 to 190 cm, the stalk thickness from 11.3-26 mm, the ear length from 6.21 to 25.38, the ear diameter 14.13 to 48.92 mm, the rows ear-1 from 2.33 to16.3, seed srow-1, the ear weight from 10.2 to 285.26g, the rachis diameter from 11.58 to 39.51mmand the grain yield from 63.68 to 1498.13 kg ha-1. Where, the range of landraces for all traits were varied huge and exceeded commercial check genotypes. Therefore, it was determined that the genotypic distinction of the landraces may be used as pre-breeding material for developing the suitable maize varieties for sustainable maize production in diverse agro-ecological conditions of Mediterranean region including Turkey.

Keywords: maize, landraces, yield, morphological traits, phenotyping, Zea mays L.

AHMADI, V. et al. (2014) Correlation and path coefficient analyses of forage yield in corn hybrids as second crop. In Int. J. Biosci., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 170–175. doi: https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/4.4.170-175
AKHTER, M.M. et al. (2016) Chlorophyll meter – a decisionmaking tool for nitrogen application in wheat under light soils. In Int. J. Plant Prod., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 289–302.
AVLOV, J. et al. (2012) Relationship between grain yield, yield components and morphological traits in maize (Zea mays L.). In Proceedings. 47th Croatian and 7th International Symposium on Agriculture. Opatija.
AZAR, C. et al. (1997). Maize landraces of the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes region of North America. In Euphytica, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 141–148.
BOĆANSKI, J. et al. (2009) Genetic and phenotypic relationship between grain yield and components of grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.). In Genetika, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 145–154.
BOSHEV, D. et al. (2014). Evaluation of maize hybrids for grain yield sability under rainfed and irrigated conditions using GGE biplot analysis. In Bulgarian J. Agric. Sci., vol. 20, no. 6, pp.
BRUSH, S. (1995) In situ conservation of landraces in centers of crop diversity. In Crop Sci., vol. 35, pp. 346–354.
CARVALHO, I.R. et al. (2017) Components of variance and inter-relation of important traits for maize (Zea mays) breeding. In Aust. J. Crop Sci., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 982–988. doi: https://doi.
De GALARRETA, J.R. and ALVAREZ, A. (2001) Morphological classification of maize landraces from northern Spain. In Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 391–400.
DEWEY, D.R. and LU, K.H. (1959) A correlation and path coefficient analysis of components of crested wheat grass seed production. In Agron. J., vol. 51, pp. 515–518.
Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/plant/
Zea (Accessed on May 05, 2018).
ERDEN, I. (1991) A research on determination of yield and yield characteristics of some hybrid and composite corn varieties in advanced generations (F1 and F2) in Samsun ecological conditions: Master thesis. University of Ondokuz Mayıs.
FERDOUSH, A. et al. (2017) Variability and traits association in maize (Zea mays L.) for yield and yield associated characters. In
J. Bangladesh Agric. Univ., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 193–198.
FETAHU S. et al. (2015) Genetic variability for yield and yield components among maize landraces. ICAFE, Korçë Albania 25.09. 2015, pp. 108–114.
FRANKEL, O.H. et al. (1995) The conservation of plant biodiversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
GOKMEN, S. (1995). Research on Yield and Yield Components of Hybrid and Composite Dent Corn Varieties in F1 and F2 Generations. In Turkish J. Agric. For., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 267–272.
GOKMEN, S.et al. (2001) Response of popcorn (Zea mays everta) to nitrogen rates and plant densities. In Turkish J. Agric. For., vol. 25 no. 1, pp. 15–23.
GOODMAN, M.M. and PATERNIANI, E. (1969) The races of maize: III. Choices of appropriate characters for racial classification. In Econom. Bot., vol. 23 no. 3, pp. 265–273.
GOZUBENLI, H.ET AL. (2001) The effect of different nitrogen doses on grain yield and yield-related characters of some maize genotypes grown as second-crop. In J. Agric. Fac. CU., vol. 16,
pp. 39–48.
GOZUBENLI, H. et al. (2003) Effect of hybrid and plant density on grain yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays). In Ind. J. Agron., vol. 48, pp. 203–205.
HOQUE, M. M. et al. (2008) Genetic divergence in maize (Zea mays L.). In Bangladesh J. Agril. Res., vol. 9, pp.145–148
IDIKUT, L. and KARA, S.N. (2011) The effects of previous plants and nitrogen rates on second crop corn. In Turkish J. Field Crops, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 239–244.
KADIR, M.M. (2010) Development of quality protein maize hybrids and their adaption in Bangladesh: Ph.D. thesis. Mymensingh: Bangladesh Agricultural University, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding.
KHODARAHMPOUR, Z. (2012) Morphological Classification of Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes in Heat Stress Condition. In J. Agric. Sci., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 43–76.
KONUSKAN, O. (2000) Effects of plant density on yield and yield-related characters of some maize hybrids grown in Hatay conditions as second crop: M.Sc. Thesis. Thika: Mount Kenya University, Science Inst. MKU.
KUMAR, A. et al. (2015) Diversity among maize landraces in North West Himalayan region of India assessed by agromorphological and quality traits. In Ind. J. Genet. Plant Breed., vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 188–195.
LANA, M.A. et al. (2017) Yield stability and lower susceptibility to abiotic stresses of improved open-pollinated and hybrid maize cultivars. In Agron. Sustain. Dev., vol. 37, pp. 30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-017-0447-5
MENDES-MOREIRA, P. et al. (2015) Genetic Architecture of Ear Fasciation in Maize (Zea mays) under QTL Scrutiny. In PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 4: e0124543. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/
MUCHIE, A. and FENTIE, D. (2016) Performance Evaluation of Maize Hybrids (Zea mays L.) in Bahir Dar Zuria District, North Western Ethiopia, Department of natural sciences, Addis Zemen
Preparatory school, Addis Zemen Ethiopia. In Intl. Res. J. Agric.
Soil Sci., vol. 3, pp. 37–43.
NZUVE, F. et al. (2013). Analysis of genotype x environment interaction for grain yield in maize hybrids. In J. Agric. Sci., vol.
5, no. 11, pp. 75–85. doi: https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v5n11p75
ONER, F. and GULUMSER, A. (2014) Determination of Some Agronomıcal Characteristics of Local Flint Corn (Zea mays L. indurata) Genotypes in The Black Sea Region of Turkey. In Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1800–1804.
ONER, F. (2015) Determination of Chemical Quality Parameters with Yield and Yield components of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids According to Various FAO Maturity Groups. In J. Tekirdag Agric. Fac., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–7
PALUMBO, F. et al. (2017) Venetian Local Corn (Zea mays L. Germplasm: Disclosing the Genetic Anatomy of Old Landraces
Suited for Typical Cornmeal Mush Production. In Diversity, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 32.
PAVAN, R. et al. (2011) Research Note Correlation and path coefficient analysis of grain yield and yield contributing traits in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.). In Electronic J. Plant Breed., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 253–257.
PEIFFER, J.A. et al. (2014) The genetic architecture of maize height. In Genetics, vol. 196, no. 4, pp. 1337–1356.
RATHER, A.G. et al. (2003) Genetic variation in maize (Zea mays L.) population in high altitude temperate conditions in Kashmir. In Indian J. Agril. Sci., vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 179–180.
SANTOS, O.S.D. et al. (1993) Comparison of F1 and F2
Generations of Commercial Hybrids Maize. In Pcog. Agropec. Gros, Brasilia, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 75–79,
SAS INSTITUTE INC. (1989). About: JMP 10 and Excel. Available at https://www.jmp.com/en_us/about.html (Accessed
on 05 May 2018)
SHANBAO, Q. et al. (2009) Effective improvement of genetic variation in maize lines derived from R08xDonor backrosses by SSRs. In Biotech., vol. 8, pp.358–364.
SHARIFI, R. S. et al. (2009) Effect of population density on yield and yield attributes of maize hybrids. In Res. J. Biol. Sci., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 375–379.
SHAW, R. H. (1988) Climate requirement. corn and corn impr.,
pp. 609–638.
TURGUT, I. (2000) Effects of Plant Populations and Nitrogen Doses on Fresh Ear Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) Grown Under Bursa Conditions. In
Turk. J. Agric. For., vol. 24, pp. 341–347.
TURGUT, I. et al. (2005) Alternate row spacing and plant density effects on forage and dry matter yield of maize hybrids
(Zea mays L.). In J. Agron. Crop Sci., vol. 91, pp.146–151.
TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE. (2017) Turkish Statistical Institute: Statistics. [Online]. Available fro http://www.tuik.gov.
tr [Accessed 2017-12-15]
TUTEN C. and Demir I. (1984) Research on Yield and Yield Components in Advanced Generation of Hybrid and Composite Maize Varieties. In J. Agric. Fac. Ege Univ., pp.179–190.
ULYSSES, J.G. (1963) Races of maize in Venezuela (Vol. 1136).
Bogota: National Academy of Sciences.
WASALA, S.K. et al. (2013). Analysis of yield performance and genotype x environment effects on selected maize (Zea mays) landrace accessions of India. In Ind. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 287–293.
YILMAZ, S. et al. (2007) Genotype and Plant Density Effects on Corn (Zea mays L.) Forage Yield. In Asian J. Plant Sci., vol. 6, pp. 538–541. doi: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2007.538.541
ZHUKOVSKY, P.M. (1951). Ecological types and economic importance of Anatolian wheat (Translators: Kipçak, C., Nouruzhan, H. and Turkistanli, S.). pp. 158–214. Turkish Sugar Beet Plants Publications: Agricultural Structure of Turkey (in Turkish).
ZSUZSANNA, Z. et al. (2002). Inheritance of plant and ear height in maize (Zea mays L.). In Acta Agraria Debreceniensis, vol. 8, pp. 34–38.


Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica

© Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources