Trypanocidal function of Terminalia catappa leaf extract in Albino rat

Deborah Adebukola Oloruntola, Ebenezer Oluyemi Dada, Muftau Kolawole Oladunmoye


Received: 2021-03-18 | Accepted: 2021-05-31 | Available online: 2021-12-31

On Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected albino rats, the trypanocidal activity of the ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa leaf (EETL) was evaluated. Thirty-six rats were allocated into six groups: Group 1 (control); Group 2: infected; Group 3: infected and treated with 10 mg kg-1 body weight diminazene aceturate; Group 4: infected and treated with 500 mg kg-1 body weight EETL; Group 5: infected and treated with 1,000 mg kg-1 body weight EETL; Group 6: infected and treated with 1,500 mg kg-1 body weight EETL. The highest parasitaemia level (P <0.05) was recorded in group 2, compared to the rest groups. The total/complete chemosuppression recorded in the group 3 was (P <0.05) higher than the rest groups. The percentage chemo-suppression improves (P <0.05) with an increased EETL dosage from 500 mg kg-1 1,500 mg kg-1. The haematological and serum biochemical parameters were determined using Abacus 380 and a Reflectron® Plus BC79 analyzer, respectively. Post-infection, the rats‘ packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration in group 2 and group 4 were (P <0.05) lower than group 1 and other groups. On day five postinfection, the rats‘ red blood cell counts in groups 2 and 4 were lower (P <0.05) than in other groups. On day 15 post-infection, the white blood cell counts of rats in groups 2 and 4 were lower (P <0.05) than in group 1, 3 and 6. Alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels in groups 2 and 4 were (P <0.05) higher than the control and other treatment groups. This study demonstrated 1,500 mg kg-1 EETL bodyweight efficacy in reducing the parasitemia level in T. brucei brucei infected rats

Keywords: Phytoconstituents, Terminalia catappa, Trypanosomosis, Zoonotic diseases


Abdullahi, A.M. et al. (2019). Effects of trypanosomiasis on hemogram and some biochemical parameters of guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei in Maiduguri, Nigeria. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 07(01), 062–074.

Akinseye, O.R. et al. (2020). Biochemical indicators in trypanosomiasis infections. Journal of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Research, 9 (1), 11–14.

Ameenah, G. and Mohamad, F.M. (2013). African flora as potential sources of medicinal plants: Towards the chemotherapy of major parasitic and other infectious diseases – A review. Jordan Journal of Biological Science, 6,77–84.

Baker, N. et al. (2013). Drug resistance in African trypanosomiasis: the melarsoprol and pentamidine story. Trends in Parasitology, 29(3).

Boada-Sucre, A.A. et al. (2016).Trypanosoma vivax adhesion to red blood cells in experimentally infected sheep. Pathology Research International, 2016.

Bouayad, N. et al. (2012). Dietary effects of harmine, a  β-carboline alkaloid, on development, energy reserves and  α-amylase activity of Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Saudi Journal of Biological Science, 19(1),73–80.

Bouteille, B. and Buguet, A. (2012). The detection and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Research and Report in Tropical Medicine, 3, 35–45.

Cayla, M. et al. (2019). African trypanosomes. Parasites and Vectors, 12, 190.

Dada, E.O. and Oloruntola, D.A. (2016). In vivo Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray against Plasmodium berghei Nk65 in infected Swiss Albino mice. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 8(3), 1–8.

Ezeonu, C.S. and Ejikeme, C.M. (2016). Qualitative and quantitative determination of phytochemical contents of indigenous Nigerian softwoods. New Journal of Science, 2016, 1–9.

Giordani, F. et al. (2016). The animal trypanosomiases and their chemotherapy: a review. Parasitology, 143(14), 1862–1889. Liu, J. et al. (2016). Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) saponin and its cholesterol‐lowering properties. Journal of Functional Foods, 23,542–555.

Madaki, F.M. et al. (2016). Phytochemical analysis and invitro anti-trypanosomal activity of selected medicinal plants in Niger State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biochemistry Research and Review, 11(3), 1–7.

Mann, A. et al. (2011). In vivo anti-trypanosomal effects of some ethnomedicinal plants from Nupeland of North Central Nigeria. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 8(1), 15–21.

Maroyi, A. and Semenya, S.S. (2019). Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Elaeodendron transvalense. Nutrients, 11(3), 545.

Mashi, J.A. et al. (2019). Biochemical indices and haematological studies of Ethyl acetate extract of Persea Americana leaf in Albino rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 4(4), 1–10.

Mbaya, A. et al. (2012). The mechanism of anaemia in trypanosomosis: a review. In: Silverberg D. editor. Anemia. pp. 269–282.

Mergia, E. et al. (2014). Evaluation of in vivo Antitrypanosomal activity of aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of Clutia abyssinica (Euphorbiaceae) against Trypanosoma congolense. Austin Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2(2014), 9–14.

Ndung’u, K. et al. (2020). Defferential virulence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense isolates does not influence the outcome of treatment with anti-trypanosomal drugs in the mouse model. Plos One, 15(11), e0229060.

Nwodo, N. et al. (2015a). Evaluation of the  in vitro trypanocidal activity of methylated flavonoid constituents of  Vitex simplicifolia  leaves.  BMC Complement. Alternative Medicine, 15, 82.

Nwodo, N.J. et al. (2015b) Anti-trypanosomal activity of Nigerian plants and their constituents. Molecules, 20, 7750–7771.

Ojeleye, F.S. et al. (2020). Assessment of in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of Terminalia catappa leaf extract and fractions on Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Archives of Veterinary Science and Medicine, 3(3), 76–82.

Oloruntola, D.A. et al. (2021). In-vitro trypanocidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa leaf. Dysona-Life Science, 2(2021), 25–32.

Oloruntola, O.D. et al. (2016). Effect of feeding broiler chicken with diets containing Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal and enzyme  supplementation. Archivos de Zootecnia, 65(252), 489–498.

Oloruntola, O.D. et al. (2018) Neem, pawpaw, and bamboo leaf meal dietary supplementation in broiler chickens: Effect on performance and health status. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 42(2) e12723.

Panche, A.N. et al. (2016) Flavonoids: an overview. Journal of Nutritional Science, 5, e47. doi: 10.1017/jns.2016.41 Stijlemans, B. et al. (2018). African TrypanosomiasisAssociated Anemia: The Contribution of the Interplay between Parasites and the Mononuclear Phagocyte System. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, 218.

Tercas, A.G. et al. (2017). Phytochemical characterization of Terminalia catappa Lin. extracts and their anti-fungal activities against Candida spp. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10.

Vehekeni, N. et al. (2020). Use of herbal remedies in the management of sleeping sickness in four northern provinces of Angola. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 256, 112382–112382.

WHO (2013). Control and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis. World HETL Organ Tech Rep Ser: 1237.

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica

© Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources