Egg production, quality parameters and sensory attributes of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed low crude protein diet supplemented with lysine

Taiwo Kayode Ojediran, Sandra Azubuzor, Isiaq Kolawole, Motunrayo Afolabi, Damilola Adeola


Received: 2018-02-26 | Accepted: 2018-03-26 | Available online: 2018-03-31

Egg production, quality parameters and sensory attributes were assessed using two hundred and eight (208) uniform female Japanese quails aged six weeks fed low-protein diet supplemented with lysine.  The birds were raised on a conventional diet before being allocated into 4 dietary groups of 4 replicates of 13 birds each in a completely randomized design in a six week feeding trial. Diet T1 had a crude protein (CP) content of 21% and lysine inclusion of 0.10% while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained 19%, 17% and 15% CP with lysine inclusion of 0.15%, 0.20% and 0.25% respectively. Birds fed T2 had significantly higher (p<0.05) egg weight. External egg parameters including egg length, egg width, eggshell thickness, eggshell percentage, egg shape index and eggshell surface area were significantly influenced (p<0.05). Internal egg quality characteristics including  average yolk weight, yolk height, yolk length, yolk colour, albumen length, albumen weight and yolk index were significantly different (p<0.05). The panelist response on egg sensory properties showed that ease of eggshell peeling, taste and overall acceptability were also significantly influenced (p<0.05). Quails fed T1 and T2 compared favourably interms of egg weight, egg length, eggshell index, eggshell surface area, yolk weight, yolk height, yolk length, yolk colour, yolk index, albumen weight, egg taste and overall acceptability unlike those fed T3-T4. Quails fed T4 had the overall least egg weight, quality parameters and acceptance because they were not easily peeled and tastes unusual. Therefore, a 19% CP diet with 0.20% lysine is adequate for laying quails.

Keywords: amino acid, egg, external parameters, internal qualities, organoleptic properties


ABD EL-MAKSOUD, A. et al. (2011). Performance of local laying hens as affected by low protein diets and amino acids supplementation. In Egypt. Poult. Sci., vol. 31, pp. 249-258.

ALAGAWANY, M. and MAHROSE, K. M. (2014). Influence of different levels of certain essential amino acids on the performance, egg quality criteria and economics of lohmann brown laying hens. In Asian J. Poult. Sci., vol. 8, pp. 82-96. doi: 10.3923/ajpsaj.2014.82.96

ALAGAWANY, M. et al., (2014). Effect of low-protein diets with crystalline amino acid supplementation on egg production, blood parameters and nitrogen balance in laying Japanese quails. Avian Biology Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 235-243. doi: 10.3184/175815514X14152945166603ajpsaj.2014.82.96

ANI, A. O. et al. (2009).Response of growing Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicks to diets containing different energy and protein levels. In Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production. Uyo 15-18.3.2009. Uyo, Nigeria: NSAP. pp. 328-331.

BAMGBOSE, A. M. and BIOBAKU, W.O. (2003). Utilisation of cotton seed cake as replacement for groundnut cake in layers’ diet: Performance and egg quality characteristics. In J. Pure Appl. Sci. vol. 3, pp 140-148.

BAWA, G. S. et al (2011). Responses of Japanese quails to varying dietary protein levels in the Tropics. In Nig. J. Anim. Prod., vol. 38, no 1, pp. 43-54.

BUNCHASAK, C. et al. (2005). Effect of dietary protein on egg production and immunity responses of laying hens during peak production period. In Int. J. Poult. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 701-708.

CORZO, A. et al. (2005). Response of broiler chicks to essential and non-essential amino acid supplementation of low crude protein diets. In Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 118, pp 319-327. doi:

COSTA, F. G. P. et al. (2004). Níveis de proteína bruta e energia metabolizável na produção e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras da linhagem Lohmann brown. In Revista Ciência e Agrotecnologia, vol. 28, no 6, pp. 1421-1427. doi:

DEMUNER, L.F. et al. (2009a) Níveis nutricionais de lisina digestível para codornas japonesas alimentadas com rações contendo 19,5% de proteína bruta. In: zootec 2009, associação brasileira de zootecnistas, 5., Águas de Lindóia. Anais... Águas de Lindóia: zootec, 2009a. Retrieved 2018-2-4 from

DEMUNER, L.F. et al. (2009b) Níveis nutricionais de lisina digestível em rações de codornas japonesas. In: zootec 2009, associação brasileira de zootecnistas, 5., Águas de Lindóia. Anais... Águas de Lindóia: ZOOTEC, 2009b. Retrieved 2018-2-4 from

DUMONT, M. A. et al. (2017). Crude protein in diets of European quails. Ciencia Animal Brasileira, vol 18. doi:

DUNCAN, D. B. (1955). Multiple range and F-tests. In Biometrics, vol. 11, pp. 1-42.

GARCIA, E.A. et al. (2005). Protein, methionine + cystine and lysine levels for Japanese quail during the production phase. In Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic. vol.7, no.1, pp.11-18. doi:

GUNAWARDANA, P. et al. (2008). Effect of energy and protein on performance, egg components, egg solids, egg quality and profits in molted hy-line W-36 hens. In J. Applied Poult. Res., vol. 17, pp 432-439. doi:

HEMID, A. F. A. et al. (2010). Alleviating effects of some environmental stress factors on productive performance in Japanese quail laying performance. World Journal of Agric. Sci., vol. 6, pp. 517-524.

KHAJALI, F. et al. (2008). Production performance and egg quality of Hy-line W36 laying hens fed reduced-protein diets at a constant total sulfur amino acid: Lysine ratio. In J. Applied Poult. Res., vol. 17, pp. 390-397. doi:

MANJU, G. U. et al. (2015). Effect of supplementation of lysine producing microbes vis-à-vis source and level of dietary protein on performance and egg quality characteristics of post-peak layers. Vet world, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 453-460.

MURAKAMI, A.E. et al. (1993) Levels of protein and energy in diets of laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). In Revista de Sociedade Brasilara de Zootecnia, vol. 22, no 4, pp 541-551.

NOVAK, C. et al. (2008). Response to varying dietary energy and protein with or without enzyme supplementation on leghorn performance and economics. 2. Laying period. In J. Applied Poult. Res., vol. 17, pp. 17-33. doi:

OJEDIRAN, T.K. et al. (2017). Blood parameters, carcass yield, organ weight and villi morphometrics of broilers fed low protein diet in excess of dietary lysine. In Trakia Journal of Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 121-127. doi:

NRC (1991). National Research council. Quail. In: Microlivestock – Little known small animal with a promising future. Nation. Academy Press. Washington D. C. pp. 147-155. doi:

PANDA, A.K., et al. (2010). Replacement of normal maize with quality protein maize on performance, immune response and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. In Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci,. vol. 23, pp. 1626-1631.

PINTO, R. et al. (2003) Lysine requirements for laying Japanese quails. In Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, vol. 32, pp.1182-1189. doi:

SAS (2000). SAS/ STAT Guide for personal computers version and Edition, Cary, North Carolina, SAS Insitute; 2000.

SHITTU, T.A. and OGUNJIMI, O. (2011). Effect of low cost shell coating and storage conditions on the raw and cooked qualities of shell egg. In CyTA-Journl of Food, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 34-50. doi:

SKLAN, D. and PLAVNIK, I. (2002) Interactions between dietary crude protein and essential amino acid intake on performance in broilers. In British Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 442-449. doi:

TEGUIA, A. and BEYNEN, A. C. (2004). Nutritional aspects of broiler production in smallholder farms in Cameroon. In Livestock Research for Rural Development,vol. 16, no 1, Art. #17. Retrieved February 26, 2018, from

TULEUM, C. D. et al. (2013). Performance and erythrocyte osmotic membrane stability of laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed varying dietary protein levels in a hot humid tropics. In Agricultre and Biology Journal of North America, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 6-13. https://doi:10.525/abjna.2013.

WU, G. et al. (2005). Effect of dietary energy on performance and egg composition of Boven White and Dekalb White hens during phase 1. In Poult. Sci., vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 1610-1615.


Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica

© Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources