Changes in production and reproduction traits in population of the Slovak Spotted Cattle

Jozef Bujko, Juraj Candrák, Július Žitný, Radovan Kasarda


Article Details: Received: 2020-04-29 | Accepted: 2020-05-28 | Available online: 2020-09-30

The study aimed to examine the analyses of the trend in the numbers of dairy cows, production and reproductive traits in the population the Slovak Spotted cattle for period 2010 to 2019. The number of Slovak Spotted dairy cows is maintained on a relatively stable level in recent years. There was a decrease in the number of animals (12 428 in 2010), but not as strong as after 1990 (85 518). From 2017 number of animals is rising from 14,062, to 14,150 (2018) and 14,627 (2019), respectively. As compared to 2010 an increase of 13.15% in 2017, 13.86% and 17.68%, in 2018 and 2019 respectively was observed. Population size raised from 113.15% (2017) to 117.68% in 2019 respectively. The average annual increase in milk production between the years 2010 to 2019 was + 157.5 kg of milk (total 1,575 kg of milk), + 5.8 kg of fat (total 58 kg of fat) and + 6.1 kg of protein (total 61 kg of protein). Positive growth of milk production in recent years is slightly comparable with the trend of breeding improvement.

Keywords: Slovak Spotted, dairy cows, traits of milk production, reproduction traits, population size


BOLACALI, M. and ÖZTÜRK, Y. (2017). Effect of non-genetic factors on reproductive traits in Simmental cows reared in subtropical climate condition. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 27(5): 1420– 1425.

BRS (2019). Average milk production of Fleckvieh in Germany. Retrieved April 24, 2020 from https://www.spermex. de/en/fleckvieh/about-fleckvieh-92.html

BUJKO, J. (2011). Optimalization Genetic Improvement Milk Production in Population Slovak Spotted Breed. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture. In Slovak.

BUJKO, J. et al. (2013). The Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Analysis Production and Reproduction traits in difference breeding type of Slovak Simmental cattle.  Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 46(2), 58–62.

BUJKO, J. et al. (2018a). Evaluation relation between traits of milk production and calving interval in breeding herds of Slovak Simmental dairy cows. Albanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 17(1), 31–36.

BUJKO, J. et al. (2018b). The impact of genetic and nongenetic factors on somatic cell count as a monitor of udder health in Slovak Simmental dairy cows.  Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 21(4), 166–168.

BUJKO, J. et al. (2019). The Analysis of Reproduction in Population of the Slovak Spotted Dairy Cows. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis,  67(6), 1419– 1426.

CZISZTER, L. T. et al.  (2017). Comparative study on production. reproduction and functional traits between Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cattle.  Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 30(5), 666–671.

DOUBLET, A. et al. (2019). The impact of genomic selection on genetic diversity and genetic gain in three French dairy cattle breeds.  Genet Sel Evol, 51.

GARAMU, K. (2019). Significance of Feed Supplementation on Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Dairy Cow. Dairy and Vet Sci J., 13(2)

GRĂDINARU, A. C. et al. (2014). Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships based on milk protein genetic variants in romanian spotted, holsteinfriesian and montbéliarde cows.  Lucrări Științifice-Universitatea de Științe Agricoleși Medicină Veterinară, Seria Zootehnie, 61, 35–38.

HAVRILA, A. et al. (2003). Effect of calving on milk production efficiency. Agriculture, 49(6), 298–302. In Slovak.

ICAR (2020). Yearly survey on the situation of milk recording systems (Years 2016, 2017 and 2018) in ICAR member countries for cow. Retrieved May 24, 2020 from

JURÁČEK, M. et al. (2020). The effect of different feeding system on fatty acids composition of cow’s milk.  Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica,  23(1), 37–41.

KADLEČÍK, O. et al. (2013). Diversity of cattle breeds in Slovakia. Slovak Journal of Animal Science, 46(4), 145–150.

KADLEČÍK, O. et al. (2017). Genetic diversity in Slovak Spotted breed. Agrofor, 2(3): 114–131. Retieved January 27, 2020 from at%20all.pdf

KARAMFILOV, S. and NIKOLOV, V. (2019). First lactation milk production of cows of the Simmental breed reared in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 25(2), 363–369.

KASARDA, R. et al. (2008). Trends of endangered population of Pinzgau Cattle in Slovakia. Archiva Zootechnica, 11(3): 82–87.

KASARDA, R. et al.  (2015). Research on Diversity, Utilization and Production Quality of Local Breeds in Slovakia. Poljoprivreda,  21(S1):  11–15.

KASARDA, R. et al. (2019). Genomic and pedigree-based inbreeding in Slovak Spotted cattle.  Agrofor,  4(1), 102–110. Retrieved March 9, 2020 from

KOCH, L. E. and LASCANO, G. J. (2018). Milk Fat Depression: Etiology, Theories, and Soluble Carbohydrate Interactions.  J Anim Res Nutr,  3(2), 2. https://doi. org/10.21767/2572-5459.100046

KORHONEN, M. et al. (2002). Effect of protein source on amino acid supply, milk production, and metabolism of plasma nutrients in dairy cows fed grass silage.  Journal of Dairy Science,  85(12), 3336–3351.

LEDINEK, M et al. (2019).  Analysis of lactating cows in commercial Austrian dairy farms: interrelationships between different efficiency and production traits, body condition score  and energy balance. Italian Journal of Animal Science,  18(1),  723–733.

ÖNER, Y. et al. (2019). Genetic diversity and population structure of Turkish native cattle breeds. South African Journal of Animal Science,  49(4): 628–635.

ORLANDO L. (2015). The first aurochsgenomereveals the breeding history of British and European cattle.  Genomebiology,  16, 225.

PERIŠIĆ, P. et al. (2009). Simmental cattle breed in different production systems. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 25(5– 6–1), 315–326. Retrieved February 2, 2020 from

PITT, D. et al. (2018). Domestication of cattle: Two or threeevents? Evolutionary applications, 12(1), 123–136.

PŠENICA, J. et al. (1987). Milk yield and calving interval of high utility cows of the Slovak Spotted Breed. Agriculture, 33(7), 668- 679. In Slovak.

SAS INSTITUTE Inc. (2011). Base SAS® 9.3 Procedures Guide. Cary: SAS InstituteInc., Carry, USA.

SLOVAK Simmental Breeders Association. (2020). The history of the breed. standard. breeding type of Slovak Spotted cattle.  ZCHSSD. Retrieved April 20, 2020 from

STRAPÁK. P.  et al. (2013).  Breeding cattle. Nitra: SUA. In Slovak.

TOMKA, J. (2018). Genetic evaluation of calving difficulty in cattle: A review. Slovak Journal of Animal Science, 51(3), 128–137.

THE Breeding Service of the Slovak Republic, S.E. (2020).  Results of dairy herd milk recording in Slovak Republic at control years 2010 to 2019. BSSR. Retrieved April 22, 2020 from In Slovak.

UTRERA, Á. R. et al. (2018). Genetic diversity assessment of the Mexican Simmental population through pedigree analysis.  Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 47.

UPADHYAY, M. R. et al. (2017). Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle. Heredity, 118(2), 169–176. https://doi. org/10.1038/hdy.2016.79

ZAR (2019). Fleckvieh/ Simmental. Annual report 2019. Vienna: ZAR. Retrieved April 24, 2020 from

ZÓŁKIEWSKI, P. et al. (2018). Productivity of Simmental and Montbéliarde cows culled in 2005–2016 taking into account the reasons for their culling. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 17(1), 15–22.

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica

© Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources